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Do Women Really Need a Female-Targeted Viagra?
Do Women Really Need a Female-Targeted Viagra?
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Article Author : dwells (October 22, 2013)

Viagra is one of the most successful and life-changing drugs to ever have been invented, and has caused a stir in the sex industry ever since it was created – it is now used by over 20 million men worldwide for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, a version for women has never been found, despite numerous researchers in a number of companies searching for an answer to this problem. Despite the search being on-going for more than a decade, no-one has ever found a problem to the female sex drive issue. The latest disappointment to add to the list is a drug known as flibanserin, which is a contender for the first approved drug to combat low sexual desire in women.

 

The Food and Drug Administration advisory panel advised against it’s approval, stating that the slight increase in female sexual satisfaction wasn’t enough to outweigh the potential side effects, such as fatigue and depression. Though it is more commonly publicised as a male problem, women do experience sexual dysfunction as well. However, experts claim that the problems is all too often a lack of desire rather than a physical problem with performing. There is a risk of GPs and medical professionals over-diagnosing women with a hypoactive sexual dysfunction, which is characterised by a low sexual desire, which can cause distress. However, for many women, this issue doesn’t need to be treated with a pill – it can be easily treated with therapy or other approaches. Taking a pill, they say, would be an easy way out. It’s true that some women could benefit from a drug to increase their sexual appetite, but they are unsure how many women this would include. Viagra is something of a one-size-fits-all treatment, whereas the same for women wouldn’t necessarily be the case.

 

Studies show that around one in ten women in the U.S experience some form of HSDD, but there is no such thing as a normal sex drive in order to determine how often a woman should be craving sex in order to be considered healthy. This is where the problem lies – a low sex drive can often be relative to the person suffering from it. There are also two other common sexual complaints in female patients, which are arousal and orgasmic disorder. Around five percent of women suffer with this problem and this can often affect other problems such as your sex drive. With this in mind, how can you tell what is affecting your sex drive?

 

The first step if you’re struggling with a low sex drive is to talk to your GP. Many women don’t discuss such problems with their doctor due to embarrassment or because they feel as though their GP isn’t interested in what they have to say. But other medical conditions may be involved, so discussing it is vital in order to get to the root of the issue. It is advised that you book a separate appointment to discuss the problem, rather than trying to fit it into an appointment about another health concern, as it requires a lot of questions and possibly a physical exam. If you’re more interested in sex when you’re not tired, such as when you’re on holiday, then it may be easy to decipher that the problem is fatigue. Your GP may suggest making some lifestyle changes to see if this solves the issue. However, hormonal changes as you age may also be a cause, so it’s vital that you explain everything to your GP so that they can help you.

Allergies And Asthma

Breathe Easy...
  Written by Jenny Catton   Recent research suggests that twice as many people have asthma now than they did 25 years ago. Scientists aren’t sure what has caused this dramatic increase but many people think that environmental factors could be playing a part.   What is asthma? Asthma is an inflammatory disease that affects the airways. Sufferers commonly experience symptoms including wheezing, coughing, a tight feeling in the chest and shortness of breath. Asthma can affect people of all ages. In the UK, more than 5.2 million people, including 1.1 million children, are being treated for asthma. In the USA, over 20 million people are thought to have asthma.   Are environmental factors to blame? Many things have been blamed for causing asthma from eating too much processed food to a lack of breast feeding. But more commonly, it’s environmental factors – particularly those that affect air quality that are linked to asthma.   Traffic fumes The charity Asthma UK has found that two thirds of people with asthma have reported that traffic fumes make their symptoms worse. In other studies, the number of instances of asthma has been found to be greater in people that live close to roads with high volumes of traffic – particularly those where buses and lorries fuelled by diesel regularly travel. Some studies have also suggested that traffic fumes could be linked to adult-on set asthma.   Modern homes It’s not just pollutants on our roads that can trigger asthma. The air quality within our homes could also be causing an increase in the number of cases of asthma. In the past we didn’t have central heating or air conditioning to keep our homes artificially heated and some experts believe that the changes in our homes – particularly a lack of fresh air could be a factor.   Exposure to chemicals Some scientists believe that exposure to chemicals could be to blame for an increase in asthma. This can include chemicals within household cleaning products or outdoor chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides. In fact, studies have shown that babies who were exposed to chemicals in the womb or shortly after birth may be more sensitive to allergens and more at risk of developing asthma.   Cigarette smoke Of course everyone is now aware of the health problems that cigarette smoke can cause and adults suffering from asthma would be wise not to smoke. But second-hand smoke can be a danger too, particularly for children. Children who grow up in a smoking household have been found to need more emergency treatment for asthma than those in a smoke-free home.     Protect your family If you think you or a family member may have asthma, it’s important that you talk to your doctor. They will be able to give you a plan and if necessary, medication, to help you manage your asthma. For many people, asthma is just an uncomfortable condition but for some sufferers it can be much more serious and in extreme cases can even cause death.   For more advice about asthma, visit: www.asthma.org.uk  
Could Colds During Pregnancy Lead To Child As...
Studies suggest that mothers who catch a cold during pregnancy could be more likely to have children who develop asthma, as the bacteria and viruses affect the in-utero environment. Babies who are exposed to the allergens are more likely to become sensitive to them and this could affect them later in life, according to researchers. The new study, which examined the risk of the common cold to unborn children, shows that women who are pregnant should take extra precautions around people who have colds and are sneezing, as it could lead to problems for their children later in life. The mothers infections and bacterial exposure during the pregnancy leads to the environment in the womb being altered. Allergist Dr Mitch Grayson stated that in addition to this, the same children in the study who had early exposure to allergens, including house dust and pet hair, also had increased odds of becoming sensitive by the age of five. When dust mites from the mother and the child’s mattresses were analysed, children with high dust mite exposure yet low bacteria exposure were more likely to develop allergies to dust mites than those with low dust mite exposure and high bacteria exposure.   Researchers looked at 513 pregnant women in Germany, and their 526 children. The women completed questionnaires during the pregnancy, when the children were 3 and 12 months old, and then every year up until the children reached five years old. Of the families, 61 per cent of them had a parent with asthma, hay fever or atopic dermatitis. According to the ACAAI, asthma and allergies can be hereditary; if both parents have allergies, the child is as much as 75 per cent more likely to be allergic. If just one parent is allergic, or if a close relative has allergies, then the child has a 30 to 40 per cent chance of developing some form of allergy. This drops to just 10 to 15 per cent if neither parent has an allergy. Researchers claim that they now know for certain that allergies and asthma can develop in the womb, as genetics play an important factor in both diseases. However, this study sheds light on how the environment a mother creates during pregnancy can begin to affect the child before it’s even been born. Asthma is the most common potentially serious medical condition to complicate pregnancy, according to the ACAAI.   Asthma affects around 1 in 12 women during their childbearing years, and when women with asthma become pregnant, one third of the patients improve, one third get worse, and one third remain unchanged. Asthma is a serious condition which affects a number of people and has numerous triggers, including house mites, dust, pollen and pollution. As pollution and toxins in the air have increased over the years, the risk of developing respiratory diseases has also increased. There are ways to treat asthma and, depending on the severity of the condition, your child may require medication to maintain it. If you're concerned about the risk colds and asthma have to your baby, or think your child is developing symptoms of asthma, you should seek advice from your GP as soon as possible. As with any pregnancy, it's important to stay as healthy as possible, maintain a balanced diet which includes all the nutrients both you and your baby need, and get enough exercise; you should also avoid alcohol and smoking, to maintain good health for both you and your baby.

Cancer

More Information on Asbestos and Mesothelioma...
There was a time, in the mid to late 80s, when everyone was talking about asbestos. There were news stories about asbestos materials in schools and libraries and other public buildings. People were talking about their worries about remodeling old houses for fear of encountering asbestos. For people who discovered asbestos in their buildings, there was debate over the expense and danger of removing it, versus the expense and danger of leaving it be. All of this sudden awareness of asbestos was due to the fact that instances of an asbestos-related cancer called mesothelioma were on the rise.   Today, the news doesn’t cover many stories about the dangers of asbestos; instead we are treated to multiple commercials about mesothelioma lawsuits. You would think that because asbestos doesn’t get as much press that it’s no longer a problem, but that’s not true. Asbestos in homes and public buildings is still an issue, as is the cancer caused by exposure to it.   What is asbestos? Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral made primarily of silicone and oxygen. There are two distinct types: ·  Chrysotile, also known as white asbestos, which is common used in industrial settings. Chrysotile asbestos has tiny curly fibers that wrap around each other; and, ·  Amphibole, which has several different names, including brown asbestos and blue asbestos, and has straight, needle-like fibers. Asbestos is strong, resistant to chemicals and heat, and doesn’t conduct electricity. On the surface it seemed like the perfect insulator so, starting in the 1900s, people were using it in everything from insulation in schools, and factories, to engine parts and automobile brakes, to ceiling and floor tiles. Asbestos was everywhere.   What’s the problem with asbestos? When things made of asbestos remain intact, there’s no problem at all. The problems start when the asbestos breaks up and those tiny fibers become airborne. Asbestos fibers are very “sticky” and when they get into the lungs, instead of being expelled when you cough, they stick.  Asbestos fibers can also contaminate food, making it possible for you to ingest them and end up with tiny fibers stuck to your digestive tract. In places where the asbestos has stuck, tissue grows around the fibers and can eventually form into mesothelioma or other forms of cancer. In the 1980s, when people discovered the danger of asbestos, regulators began taking steps to reduce people’s exposure to it. As a result, many products that were once made with asbestos no longer contain it. However, that doesn’t mean asbestos is no longer a problem. Although there are federal regulations banning the use of asbestos in some instance, there is not a universal ban on the substance. This means that it’s still possible for asbestos to make it into your home. Additionally, older buildings could still contain it within the walls, on the floors, and in the materials used to insulate pipes and ducts. Online resources can provide a list of asbestos containing products that could be potentially dangerous if they become broken or worn, or are exposed through a routine home remodel. If you have an older home, or just have concerns about whether or not there is asbestos in your home, you can consult one of these lists. If you recognize the names of any of these products, you should consider having your home or garage tested for asbestos.   Asbestos and Cancer We have talked a little about asbestos and cancer before, in terms of the increases in mesothelioma cases and efforts in the UK to reduce the manufacture of products that contain it. Today we will talk more about why mesothelioma is such a big deal. The main problem with mesothelioma is that the early symptoms of mesothelioma are so mild that most people ignore them until they get really bad, and by then it’s too late. Another serous issue is that mesothelioma has a latency period from 20 to 50 years, which means that individuals who were exposed on the job in the 70s could be well past retirement age when they start getting sick. An additional troubling issue is that asbestos sticks to clothing, so the spouses and families of individuals who worked with asbestos were also at risk for exposure. Finally, mesothelioma has a very poor survival rate. The median survival time for stage 1 is 21 months, however most people aren’t diagnosed until the advanced stages, when the survival time is significantly lower. If you believe that you have been exposed to asbestos, and you have chest pain, coughing, and shortness of breath, contact your physician.
Biomarker and microenvironmental strategies f...
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The use of noble metal particles to stain tumors and achieve optical contrast for biomedical applications has taken on a clinical dimension,1, 2 with applications that include optical hyperthermia to ablate cells and photoacoustic imaging of cancer. Obtaining plasmonic bands in the near-IR window to penetrate deeply into biological tissue is now possible by tailoring the shape and size of the particles used.3 As an example, gold nanorods exhibit excellent optical absorbance and stability4 and have a surface that can be modified with functional moieties that alter their biological profiles. When grafted with polyethylene glycol (that is, PEGylated), these nanorods are nontoxic to cells (noncytotoxic), have few interactions with blood plasma components and macrophages, and are, therefore, cleared slowly from the blood.5 This feature enables their passive accumulation in tumors that exhibit enhanced permeability and retention because of a ‘leaky’ vascular network and poor lymphatic drainage. In addition, using suitable ligands might strengthen this effect and enable active recognition of certain targets.     Choosing the right targets is critical. A common approach is to identify ‘fingerprints’ of the high metabolic activity of malignant cells, such as the overexpression of growth factor and folate receptors. However, these molecules are also broadly distributed in healthy tissue, making discrimination difficult. Instead, we have focused on antigens that are specific to certain diseases,6 such as CA125, which is a mucin (protein) recurring in ovarian, endometrial, fallopian tube, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers. CA125 is also a standard biomarker for ovarian cancers; patients have an excessive amount of it in their blood serum. We showed that PEGylated gold nanorods modified with anti-CA125 antibodies exhibit high specificity for cells overexpressing CA125: see Figure 1(a,b). In addition, these particles are compatible with intravenous injection owing to their minimal interaction with blood plasma components, erythrocytes (red bood cells), and macrophages. Most of their ability to detect cells overexpressing CA125 is retained even in environments that might saturate the ligand, such as the blood plasma and ascites of mice with ovarian cancers.
Figure 1. (a–e) Cells exposed to different kinds of particles and then treated with silver enhancement to highlight their accumulation. (a) Colorectal carcinoma cells (not overexpressing the antigen CA125). (b) Ovarian cancer cells (overexpressing CA125). Both are exposed to particles conjugated with anti-CA125 antibodies. Breast cancer cells grown in (c) normal and (d) reduced oxygen conditions. These were exposed to particles modified with sulfonamides. (e) Macrophages treated with cationic particles. (f) Number of cationic particles (part.) per macrophage versus dosage of cationic particles. Au: Gold. μM: Micrometers.
    In most cases, identification of the correct targets is complicated both by the dissimilarities among malignant lesions and similarities between normal and malignant cells. Rather than consider individual cells, we looked at the differences between healthy and tumor microenvironments. The incoherent vascularization and high oxygen consumption of solid tumors often generates hypoxia (an environment of reduced oxygen levels). Hypoxic cells operate a metabolic switch to anaerobic glycolysis, which requires the expression of specific enzymes such as transmembrane isoforms of carbonic anhydrases.6 To recognize these enzymes, we terminated PEGylated gold nanorods with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, including sulfonamide moieties.7 We found that these particles localized to carbonic anhydrase-expressing cells and delivered the sulfonamide treatment effectively, treating hypoxic cells both by alkalinization of their extracellular environment and by making the cells sensitive to optical excitation: see Figure 1(c,d). Moreover, we speculate that it might be possible to exploit heat diffusion to extend the hyperthermic effect from hypoxic to normoxic areas (those with normal oxygen levels) in a solid tumor.     With hyperthermic treatment potentially going beyond the lengthscale of the individual cells, it is possible to suggest alternatives for the delivery of contrast agents. One example is to transfer the pursuit of specificity from a molecular ligand to a cellular vehicle.7 A broad pool of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines in the tumor microenvironment attract so-called tumor-associated macrophages that are often conditioned to support the malignant cells. We can recruit these macrophages to carry the particles to the tumor as a Trojan horse, which can infiltrate compartments normally protected from the bloodstream, such as the brain. To achieve this, we modified PEGylated gold nanorods with quaternary amines—producing a cationic profile—that imparted high affinity for plasmatic membranes and efficiency of cellular uptake. We found that these particles underwent massive accumulation in macrophages by endocytic pathways—see Figure 1(e,f)—without immediate effects on their viability and function. At present, we are investigating the preservation of the macrophages' motility and readiness to infiltrate malignant lesions.     In summary, we are exploring complementary pathways to deliver particles to tumors by the interplay of passive and active strategies. In pursuit of ideal targets and ligands, we have drawn biological inspiration, moving from the individual cells with their intrinsic anomalies to the cellular response, and finally the bodily response to the tumor microenvironment. At present, all these strategies show promise and the preference for one or the other might require a case-by-case decision. Our future work will focus on comparing all these opportunities in vivo and addressing ways to combine them.     This work is supported in part by the Project of the Health Board of the Tuscan Region NANOTREAT.
 

Diabetes

Which Health Complications can Result from Di...
  You may think that diabetes doesn’t really have a major impact on your wellbeing. Sure, you can’t eat as many doughnuts as you used to, but you’ll be fine, right? In fact, diabetes can be a silent killer as, if it goes uncontrolled, it can lead to deadly wellness complications.   Firstly, let’s look at diabetic ketoacidosis. This is an effect that diabetes has on your fat and metabolism, in which your body starts using fat as a fuel source because you’re lacking enough insulin – the hormone responsible for breaking down glucose. This can lead to symptoms such as deep gasping breathing, acute pain in your abdomen, bad dehydration leading to weakness and fainting and vomiting, and if you notice anything like this, you need to take it seriously and contact your doctor.   But the wellness complications don’t end there. Diabetic retinopathy is a condition which affects your eyes and vision. The innermost layer of your eye, your retina, is affected by ineffective blood glucose control. When this happens, the small blood vessels in your retina are damaged and weakened, which can present early symptoms of eye problems related to diabetes such as blurred vision and double vision. However, if you let it get past that stage, you can also develop a severe, permanent loss of vision, cataracts and glaucoma.   Uncontrolled blood sugar levels can also lead to diabetic nephropathy, which affects your kidneys. Hypertension or high blood pressure can increase your risk for this condition even further, and you need to watch out for signs of swelling in your feet and legs or around your eyes. Diabetics with high blood pressure – as well as those who are smokers, grossly overweight and/or have a family history of diabetes – are also at a high risk of developing heart disease and strokes.   Finally, your nerves affect just about every process in your body and uncontrolled diabetes can affect these too. You might experience a loss of sensation, especially around your peripheries like legs, which means you might not be able to figure out if you’ve had an injury and it may end up getting infected. Diabetic gangrene can cause your leg flesh to decay and you may need an amputation. Your nerve damage can also cause diarrhoea, erectile dysfunction, loss of bladder control, and dizziness.
Does Heavy Drinking Increase Your Risk of Pre...
  If you’re a young person whose wellness is affected by early-stage hypertension, heavy drinking may put your wellbeing at risk of diabetes. This is according to researchers at the San Antonio Hospital, University of Padova, Italy, whose cohort study of stage 1 hypertensive individuals showed that more than 10 drinks a day boosted the risk of prediabetes (in which your serum glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL) more than six times.   Lucio Mos and colleagues presented their findings at the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation's EuroPRevent meeting, noting that if you have less than five drinks a day, you are neither harming or improving your risk for prediabetes. Session moderator Paul Dendale, MD, PhD, of the University of Hasselt, Belgium, commented that this is a surprising finding, because there is an established link between moderate drinking and a protective effect in cardiovascular disease and certain other conditions.   The original aim of the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST) was to look at white-coat hypertension in patients seen at 17 hypertension clinics in northeast Italy, and so Dendale surmised that the hypertensive population studied may have accounted for the difference in the study’s findings. He noted, ‘Alcohol is also increasing the blood pressure, so it might be that, there again, you have some effect in a population that is more sensitive to alcohol.’ Dendale concluded that, therefore, the message remains an emphasis on moderation.   1,177 patients, ages 18 to 45, participated in the study, all of whom had systolic blood pressure between 140 and 159 mm Hg, or diastolic pressure of 90 to 99 mm Hg. The participants had never been treated for hypertension and were free of other important risk factors for atherosclerosis at baseline. The study involved 6.5 years of follow-up, during which time average glycaemic levels climbed with greater daily alcohol intake (P=0.02), as did prediabetes (P=0.006). Those who drank more also tended to have higher cholesterol (P=0.03), and 3.1 times more likely to have sustained hypertension (95% CI 1.4 to 7.2). However, when it came to those who abstained from alcohol, and those who drank mild amounts, the researchers reported that the risk of prediabetes was similar.